An Introduction to Language (7th edition) by Victoria Fromkin

By Victoria Fromkin

AN advent TO LANGUAGE is perfect to be used in any respect degrees and in lots of diversified components of guideline together with schooling, languages, psychology, anthropology, educating English as a moment Language (TESL), and linguistics. All chapters during this best-seller were considerably revised to mirror contemporary discoveries and new realizing of linguistics and languages.

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Evidence is provided by pronouns in English and Polish. Pronouns in these languages are simi- 27 28 Explaining language structure lar in that they code the features gender (for the third-person singular), number, and person, but they actually belong to different subdomains within the domain of reference. Pronouns in English code coreference when preceded by an antecedent having the same person, gender and number, while pronouns in Polish code switch reference with respect to the antecedent. Consider the third-person singular masculine pronoun in English: 1_1_0 <74 A> [@:] he ^should have had his .

2. Agreement and government do not exist, but disagreement and insubordination are not tolerated The general principle proposed in the present section is that while there is no agreement and no government in the sense that one form triggers changes on another form, disagreement is not allowed. If two constituents A and B are part of the same construction and there is a feature X coded on the form A, the form B cannot code feature Y if features X and Y both belong to the same domain. Consider a language in which nouns, verbs and adjectives code number, either singular or plural.

In Mupun, a West Chadic language, the ‘definite’ marker codes previous mention. A noun that has been previously mentioned in discourse may be 3 32 Explaining language structure coded by a definite marker regardless of whether the noun is an ordinary noun, a proper name, or a toponym. However, a single function may be coded by more than one means provided these means occur in different constructions. In fact, this is the very basis of systems interaction. For example, in Chapter 10 (locative predication) we show that in Mina (Central Chadic), if the locative function in a given construction is not coded by lexical means it is coded by grammatical means, which include a locative predicator for predicates and locative prepositions for nouns.

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