By George Blyn
In a constructing financial system, agriculture mustn't ever purely supply for a becoming population, but in addition produce a surplus for funding. For an old, custom-dominated land like India, how does agriculture try and meet those calls for? during this e-book, the commercial heritage of India's agriculture and the level of its improvement, from 1891 to independence (1947), is heavily and authoritatively tested in a examine of output, acreage, and yield in keeping with acre for the eighteen plants that represent so much of India's agriculture.
The nature of switch for every of those eighteen plants, and for the foodgrain, nonfoodgrain, and all-crop teams is defined and analyzed for the fifty-six-year interval as an entire, in addition to for shorter sessions, for British India and 6 significant areas. Output and exchange information are mixed to figure out tendencies within the availability of vegetation. those developments are in comparison with inhabitants figures to point alterations in India's welfare. to provide an explanation for the tendencies in acre productiveness, shut scrutiny is given to alterations m the composition of output, depth of cultivation, agricultural expertise, and actual environment.
An large remedy of the methodological difficulties encountered in assembling sufficient crop information and statistical measurements precedes the research of agricultural improvement. a correct account needs to stability the multitude of variables all in favour of the complicated process through which agricultural details used to be compiled and evaluated: the reliability of the village recorders, the alterations in boundary traces and the resultant adjustments in files, the effect of weather and international markets, in addition to the bigger styles of background and nature, struggle and catastrophe.
The finished Appendix contains, between different resource fabrics, the yearly information for person plants and crop aggregates and their pattern premiums for person many years. The textual content comprises various tables, charts, and maps.
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Extra resources for Agricultural Trends in India, 1891-1947: Output, Availability, and Productivity
Estimates of Area and Yield of the Principal Crops in India,' issued annually from 1891/�2, contains most of the data used in this study. Estimates gives output as well as acre age data for the reporting provinces and states, British India and all-India;· states and provinces were not always separated, however, until 1921/22. District level reports were given in' Season and Crop Reports issued by provinces. Output and acreage data are estimates of the standing crop at harvest time, the final forecast in the succession of several forecasts issued during the growing season and published either in the weekly Indian Trade Journal or separately.
Against the danger of estimates prepared for statistical pur poses being coloured by questions of suspension and remission of revenue. We consider that there has too frequently been in the past a tendency on the part of both primary and other reporting agencies to report an incorrect crop, when the crop approaches a point at which questions of suspension and remission appear likely to arise. Whether the downward-expected bias of the village official 11 Provincial anna normals were: 12 annas-Madras, Bombay, Bengal, Assam; 16 annas-United Provinces, Punjab, North West Frontier Province; Bihar and Orissa-12 districts at 12 annas, 7 at 13 annas,.
For wheat the proportion exported fell from 14% to 2% in the same periods. Reliability, therefore, cannot be tested by merely comparing exports, with reported output. "Some data of this type is given in the government's Inland Trade by Rail and River of India series, published up to 1920/21, and again starting with 1933/34. n Home consumption, outside the factories, is estimated at. industry's figures. i TRENDS iN INDIA, 1891-1947 reporting States. R. Sample, Surveys," 1944-49, for rice and wheat, found output generally underestimated in the govern ment figures for Indian Union regions, but there was consider able regional variation, including over-estimation.