By B. W. Filippone, Xiangdong Ji (auth.), J. W. Negele, E. W. Vogt (eds.)
The 4 articles of the current quantity deal with very diverse issues in nuclear physics and, certainly, surround experiments at very other forms of exp- imental amenities. the variety of curiosity of the articles extends from the character of the substructure of the nucleon and the deuteron to the overall houses of the nucleus, together with its part transitions and its wealthy and unforeseen quantal homes. the 1st article through Fillipone and Ji stories the current experimental and theoretical state of affairs bearing on our wisdom of the foundation of the spin of the nucleon. until eventually approximately two decades in the past the half-integral spin of the neutron and p- ton was once considered as their intrinsic estate as Dirac debris that have been the fundamental construction blocks of atomic nuclei. Then, with the appearance of the normal version and of quarks because the uncomplicated development blocks, the substructure of the - cleon grew to become the topic of extreme curiosity. preliminary nonrelativistic quark m- els assigned the starting place of nucleon spin to the elemental half-integral spin of its 3 constituent quarks, leaving no room for contributions to the spin from the gluons linked to the interacting quarks or from the orbital angular momentum of both gluons or quarks. That naive figuring out used to be shaken, approximately fifteen years in the past, by means of experiments regarding deep-inelastic scattering of electrons or muons from nucleons.
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5. GLUON HELICITY DISTRIBUTION As remarked in the Introduction, the gluon contribution to the spin of the nucleon can be separated into spin and orbital parts. As with its unpolarized counterpart, the polarized gluon distribution is difficult to access experimentally. There exists no theoretically clean and, at the same time, experimentally straightforward hard scattering process to directly measure the distribution. In the last decade, many interesting ideas have been proposed and some have led to useful initial results from the present generation of experiments; others will be tested soon at various facilities around the world.
The maximal parity violation in the interaction and the dependence of the production on the weak charge of the quarks can be used in principle to select specific flavour and charge for the quarks. Thus the single spin longitudinal asymmetry for production can be written . where and refer to the value of the quark and antiquark participating in the interaction (see for example Fig. 3). Making the replacement gives the asymmetry for production. In the experiments the are detected through their decay to a charged lepton in PHENIX and in STAR) and the values are determined from the angles and energies of those detected leptons.
Ignoring the dependence, the spin asymmetry is related to the photon-nucleon spin asymmetry by where D is the depolarization factor introduced before. The NLO corrections have recently been calculated by Bojak and Stratmann  and Contogouris et al. . The scale uncertainty is considerably reduced in NLO, but the dependence on the precise value of the charm quark mass is sizable at fixed target energies. Besides the total charm cross-section, one can study the distributions of the cross-section in the transverse momentum or rapidity of the charm quark.