Adam Smith - An Inquiry Into The Nature And Causes Of The by Fred R. Glahe

By Fred R. Glahe

An Inquiry into the character and factors of the Wealth of countries is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith. it's a in actual fact written account of economics on the sunrise of the commercial Revolution, in addition to a rhetorical piece written for the commonly knowledgeable person of the 18th century - advocating a unfastened marketplace economic climate as extra effective and more desirable to society.The paintings is credited as a watershed in background and economics because of its finished, principally actual characterization of financial mechanisms that live on in glossy economics; and in addition for its powerful use of rhetorical process, together with structuring the paintings to distinction actual global examples of unfastened and fettered markets.---Исследование о природе и причине богатства народов (англ. An Inquiry into the character and explanations of the Wealth of countries) — основная работа шотландского экономиста Адама Смита, опубликованная nine марта 1776 года во времена Шотландского просвещения.Книга оказала значительное влияние на экономическую теорию и в частности на политическую экономию.Ещё при жизни Адама Смита книга выдержала пять изданий в Англии (в 1776, 1778, 1784, 1786 и 1789), была издана во Франции (первый перевод в 1779 году) и в Германии. Огромное количество изданий было сделано после смерти Смита (1790 год).Трактат состоит из five книг:
Причины увеличения производительности труда и порядок, в соответствии с которым его продукт естественным образом распределяется между классами народа;
О природе капитала, его накоплении и применении;
О развитии благосостояния у разных народов;
О системах политической экономии;
О доходах монарха или государства.

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A gardener who cultivates his own garden with his own hands, unites in his own person the three different characters, of landlord, farmer, and labourer. His produce, therefore, should pay him the rent of the first, the profit of the second, and the wages of the third. The whole, however, is commonly considered as the earnings of his labour. Both rent and profit are, in this case, confounded with wages. As in a civilized country there are but few commodities of which the exchangeable value arises from labour only, rent and profit contributing largely to that of the far greater part of them, so the annual produce of its labour will always be sufficient to purchase or command a much greater quantity of labour than what was employed in raising, preparing, and bringing that produce to market.

But this original state of things, in which the labourer enjoyed the whole produce of his own labour, could not last beyond the first introduction of the appropriation of land and the accumulation of stock. It was at an end, therefore, long before the most considerable improvements were made in the productive powers of labour ; and it would be to no purpose to trace further what might have been its effects upon the recompence or wages of labour. As soon as land becomes private property, the landlord demands a share of almost all the produce which the labourer can either raise or collect from it.

The value of gold would seem to depend upon the quantity of silver which it would exchange for, and the value of silver would not seem to depend upon the quantity of gold which it would exchange for. This difference, however, would be altogether owing to the custom of keeping accounts, and of expressing the amount of all great and small sums rather in silver than in gold money. One of Mr Drummond's notes for five-and-twenty or fifty guineas would, after an alteration of this kind, be still payable with five-and-twenty or fifty guineas, in the same manner as before.

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