By Laurence C Thompson
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Extra info for A Vietnamese Reference Grammar [incomplete]
I will continue the use of the term Subject-raising here for the sake of convenience, but it should be clear that from an analogical, usage-based grammar point of view, raising (which is a form of movement) does not exist. As will be made clear below, the so-called ‘raised’ constructions involve a replacement of non-raised constructions by a process of analogy. . In Old English the subject position was generally filled by an agentive-like argument, except in intransitive clauses (including passives), where the position could also be filled by the theme/patient argument.
Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Warner, Anthony R. 1990. Reworking the history of English auxiliaries. In Papers from the 5th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics, Cambridge, 6–9 April 1987 [Cur rent Issues of Linguistic Theory 65] Sylvia Adamson, Vivienne Law, Nigel Vincent & Susan Wright (eds), 537–558. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Warner, Anthony. 1993. English Auxiliaries. Structure and History. Cambridge: CUP. Winford, Donald. 2000. Irrealis in Sranan: Mood and modality in a radical creole.
Note in addition that Roberts & Roussou’s (2002) earlier Merge of the dynamic/deontic modal to the left of the VP in the T position, also predicts an increase in scope, but, unlike in the case of the epistemic modals, there was no scope increase in semantic terms as far as the deontic modals are concerned. In other words, a position higher up in the syntactic structure need not be automatically linked to a semantic-pragmatic increase in scope. It seems to me that there is a problem with the Tabor-Traugott use of scope and their subsequent findings of scope increase.