By Vít Bubeník
This monograph goals to shut the space in our wisdom of the character and speed of grammatical switch through the formative interval of todays Indo-Aryan languages. through the 6th-12th c. the slow erosion of the artificial morphology of previous Indo-Aryan resulted eventually within the remodelling of its syntax towards the hot Indo-Aryan analytic type.
This research concentrates at the emergence and improvement of the ergative development when it comes to the passive-to-ergative reanalysis and the co-existence of the ergative development with the previous and new analytic passive structures. exact cognizance is paid to the actuation challenge obvious because the tug of conflict among conservative and eliminative forces in the course of their improvement. different chapters take care of the evolution of grammatical and lexical element, causativization, modality, absolute structures and subordination.
This examine is predicated on a wealth of recent info gleaned from unique poetic works in Apabhraṃśa (by Svayaṃbhādeva, Puṣpadanta, Haribhadra, Somaprabha et al.). It includes sections facing descriptive options of Medieval Indian grammarians (esp. Hemacandra). the entire Sanskrit, Prakrit and Apabhraṃśa examples are continuously parsed and translated.
The opus is solid within the theoretical framework of sensible Grammar of the Prague and Amsterdam faculties. it may be of specific curiosity to students and scholars of Indo-Aryan and normal ancient linguistics, specifically these attracted to the problems of morphosyntactic swap and typology of their sociohistorical atmosphere.
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Extra info for A Historical Syntax of Late Middle Indo-Aryan (Apabhraṃśa)
Bubenik 1996:11). It was pointed out that only one site (the Jogimara cave) among the Eastern inscriptional sites showed ś, and that less than a half of the places displayed merger of OIA liquids in favor of/. One could thus conclude that the 'strict' Magadhi dialect (with i, /, and -e for OIA -ah) was confined to a rather small area; the greater part of the Eastern regions showed only two of the three features; and the periphery of the region possessed none of these Magadhi characteristics. Pataliputra, the capital of Mauryan empire, is usually considered to be the region where the 'strict' Magadhi must have been spoken.
Between Classical Sanskrit and the regional dialects (= emerging NIA vernacular languages) we find a fluid continuum of Prakrits and Apabhrarnsa. Their use of early Prakrits during the late MIA period may be viewed as showy 'antiquarianism' (cf. 2). Apabhrarnsa, a literary variety based on late Prakrits, became the literary 'koine' of Northern India during the last centuries (10th - 12th) under consideration (cf. 3). Apabhramśa's intermediate position in the linguistic continuum is manifested by influences from 'above' and 'below': from the classical literary models (Sanskritisms and Prakritisms) and from the spoken language (in individual works one may distinguish Gujaratisms, Rajasthanisms, Marathicisms, and Magadhisms).
The rhetorician Bhamaha commented on the Prakrtaprakāsa but the text in his possession included two additional books: one on the Paisaci and another on the Magadhi dialect. Sometime after Bhamaha another book on the Śaurasenī dialect was added, and book V was split in two. Thus in Cowell's 1868 edition, book IX deals with particles, X with Paisāci, XI with Magadhi, and XII with Śaurasenī, making the total of twelve books. Vararuci's Prakrit grammar presupposes knowledge of Panini's Sanskrit grammar.