By National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (Editors)
This record addresses the dimension of radioactivity and bargains with the colossal variety of varied radioactive fabrics that experience turn into to be had within the final 3 a long time, from nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, for functions in drugs, medical examine, and undefined. It additionally addresses low-level radioactivity measurements for the tracking of radioactivity in environmental media, similar to air and water, in reference to the regulate of radioactive effluents linked to the creation of nuclear energy or using radionuclides.
Preface to the 1st version
Preface to the second one version
desk of Contents
2. Physics of a few Radiation Detectors
three. basic or Direct Measurements of job in Radioactive Decay
four. oblique or Comparative Measurements of job in Radioactive Decay
five. thoughts for the education of ordinary assets for Radioactivity Measurements
6. The Assay of Radioactivity and the id of Radionuclides in Environmental, clinical, and commercial Laboratories
eight. Measurements coverage, criteria, Traceability and the assertion of Uncertainty
Appendix A: Nuclear-Decay info for chosen Radionuclides
Appendix B: The information of Radioactive Decay
Read Online or Download A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures, 2nd edition PDF
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Additional resources for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures, 2nd edition
A further spread can also be caused by a nonuniform center wire and by end-effects, both of which cause varying field distributions along the wire. However, in most cases the shape of the outer electrode is unimportant, because multiplication takes place very close to the anode wire, where the electric field gradient is highest (Eq. 1). Asymmetric shapes of the outer electrode may result, however, in significant variation in electron-collection times from different regions of the sensitive volume of the counter.
Suppose that ii is the average electron multiplication in the avalanche so that each of n electrons produced in the primary ionizing event gives rise, in its acceleration toward the anode wire, to an average total of 6 electrons in the avalanche. As a result of the inelastic collisions between the accelerated electrons and gas atoms, photons will be emitted and these, in turn, can interact with the walls (in the case of a rare gas) to produce further photoelectrons. If Peis the probability that such a photoelectron be formed for every electron in the avalanche, then the n electrons produced by the primary ionizing event will produce in the initial avalanche, or Townsend discharge, in the high-intensity electric field near the wire, an average of nG electrons by collision and nEPe photoelectrons elsewhere in the counter.
Such photoelectrons give rise to spurious pulses that occur within 10 or 15 microseconds for most counters of typical dimensions, and operating pressures and voltages (see Campion, 1973). Longer delayed pulses, called after-pulses, arise from the neutralization of the positive ions close to the cathode wall with the emission of a photoelectron from the cathode wall (see BIPM, 1976). The addition of small proportions of gases with complex molecules that absorb photons without ionization increases the stability of the counter.