By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith
A successor to A Geologic Time Scale 1989 (Cambridge, 1990), this quantity introduces the speculation and method in the back of the development of the hot time scale, sooner than offering the size itself in huge element. a global crew of over 40 stratigraphic specialists develops the main updated foreign stratigraphic framework for the Precambrian and Phanerozoic eras. a wide wallchart (not to be had for book) summarizing the time scale in the back of the ebook completes this valuable reference for researchers and scholars.
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Additional resources for A Geologic Time Scale 2004
200 200 Triassic Triassic Sinemur. 7 Kim. 6 152 141 Kim. 0 Toarcian Toarcian Pliensbach. 6(b) Comparison at the stage level of selected Mesozoic time scales with GTS2004. 1 Norian 160 Callovian Norian Norian 150 Bathonian Bathonian 187 Rhaet. 2 Kimmeridg. 0 Rhaetian Norian 130 Kim. 9 Pliensbach. 0 Hettangian Hettangian Hettangian 208 208 Rhaet. Pliensbach. Pliensbach. 5 Oxfordian Oxfordian 163 Aptian Tithonian Oxfordian Tithonian Oxfordian 152 Albian 114 Barremian Hauterivian Hauterivian 100 110 112 Barremian 125 Neocomian 135 190 Albian 108 113 119 Hauterivian 121 Barremian - 130 113 119 120 120 180 Albian Aptian Tithonian Berr.
Coniac. 3 Turon. 5 Cenoman. Cenoman. Cenoman. Cenoman. 96 96 Cenoman. 97 Cenoman. 5 Cenoman. 100 83 83 84 84 250 Introduction whole-rock samples. A good review in this respect for the Devonian is found in Williams et al. (2000), whose study points out that it is clearly desirable to combine high analytical precision with narrow biostratigraphic control to provide the most useful points for time scale calibration. These authors make a case that the Carboniferous–Devonian boundary is near 362 Ma instead of near 354 Ma or even younger, as shown in more recent scales of Fig.
Summary of selection process Relation of the GSSP to historical usage; references to historical background and adjacent (stage) units; selected publications Other candidates and reasons for rejection; summary of votes and received comments Other useful reference sections 5. Official publication Summary documentation in IUGS journal Episodes Full publication in journal Lethaia (ICS’s ofﬁcial publication channel) a Revised from Remane et al. (1996) according to current procedures and recommendations of the IUGS International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).