By Vilem Mathesius, Josef Vachek
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Additional info for A Functional Analysis of Present Day English on a General Linguistic Basis
Na zapfenou [incognito]. In Czech a productive type is represented only by the names of various charges and taxes (vplatne [a charge connected with payment], stocne [water rate]) and by designations of social strata (nezamestnani [the unemployed], chudi [the poor]), but even these are relatively rare in Czech. In English a distinction has to be made between the designations of persons and things. In referring to an individual person, substantivization of an adjective is not possible, as in such instances the adjective requires complementation by a noun or the expletive one.
F O R M A L D I F F E R E N C E S BETWEEN THE WORD IN ENGLISH CATEGORIES On the whole it can be said that the category of nouns and the category of verbs are not formally differentiated so clearly as in Czech, and that for two reasons. In the first place, Czech has a far larger number of nouns and verbs derived, respectively, by substantival and verbal suffixes, and secondly, the inflection systems of nouns and verbs are also distinctly different. As a result the endings themselves clearly indicate whether the word in question is a noun or a verb.
3 9 T h e f a c t t h a t a n English n o u n can convert into a n a d j e c t i v e m a y be p r o v e d b y t h e following a r g u m e n t s : 1. A n o u n converted i n t o a n a d j e c t i v e a n d a prim a r y (i. e. non-converted) adjective, when employed in t h e s a m e s y n t a c t i c function, are coordinated (by m e a n s of and: She is quite vulgar and commonplace). 2. A secondary a d j e c t i v e of this k i n d m a y be s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e n o u n it qualifies b y a p r i m a r y a d j e c t i v e (evening radical paper, a good office preparatory school).