A DICTIONARY OF THE CHUJ (MAYAN) LANGUAGE by Nicholas A. Hopkins

By Nicholas A. Hopkins

The lexical information stated during this Chuj-English dictionary have been accrued in the course of my
dissertation box paintings in 1964-65. My first publicity to the Chuj language was once in 1962, whilst I
went to Huehuetenango with Norman A. McQuown and Brent Berlin to assemble information on the
languages of the Cuchumatanes (Berlin et al. 1969). on the time i used to be a graduate pupil at the
University of Texas, hired as a learn assistant at the college of Chicago's Chiapas
Study initiatives, directed by way of McQuown (McQuown and Pitt-Rivers 1970). operating via the
Maryknoll monks who have been then the Catholic clergy within the indigenous components of Huehuetenango
and in other places in Guatemala, we recorded fabric, often within the kind of 100-word Swadesh
lists (for glottochronology), from a number of languages. The pattern integrated audio system of the
Chuj number of San Mateo Ixtatán (including the fellow who used to be later to develop into my major
informant).

In the Spring of 1962, as box paintings for the undertaking wound down, I again to Austin to
finish drafting my Master's thesis, after which went directly to Chicago to start graduate reports in
Anthropology on the college of Chicago, with McQuown as my significant professor. I continued
to paintings on Chiapas undertaking fabrics in McQuown's files, and in 1963 he assigned me the
Chuj language because the subject of my upcoming doctoral dissertation. Over the subsequent educational 12 months I
transcribed and analyzed the Chuj fabrics we had accumulated and ready initial analyses
of the phonology and morphology of the language.
At the tip of the summer season of 1964, with help from a countrywide safeguard schooling Act
Foreign Language Fellowship, I went to Huehuetenango to start box paintings on Chuj. by means of the end
of August I had reduced in size an informant (Francisco Santizo Andrés) and rented a home in
Huehuetenango, and we all started paintings in earnest. From then till September of 1965 we worked
an eight-hour day, six days per week, with occasional breaks whilst Francisco might pass domestic and I
would visit San Cristóbal de Las Casas, the place Berlin and different anthropologists and linguists
were engaged on their very own projects.

We started by means of reviewing my initial analyses and correcting my blunders of
transcription, in addition to my phonemic research. even as Francisco discovered to transcribe
Chuj within the technical orthography that we used on the time (using ¢ for the alveolar affricate, c
with hachek for the alveopalatal affricate, x for the velar fricative, etc.). through the years I elicited
Terry Kaufman's Mayan Vocabulary Survey checklist (a roughly 1400-item questionnaire
covering easy vocabulary for Mesoamerican languages), and a Monosyllable Dictionary. The
latter, it seems that designed through Kaufman for the Chicago tasks, took good thing about the CVC
shape of such a lot Mayan roots, and concerned producing the checklist of attainable CVC mixtures and
attempting to elicit vocabulary in accordance with each one. One benefit of this method is that it elicits
vocabulary that may in a different way now not happen to both the informant or the investigator, including
onomatopoetic varieties in addition to hardly heard lexical iterms. We additionally started to checklist narratives.
Francisco may dictate a textual content to the tape recorder, operated through me, after which transcribe the tape
(see Hopkins 1980b). i'd pass over the transcriptions and ask questions about the grammar
and lexicon. all of the lexical fabric amassed by way of those options used to be wear three x five slips and filed
in the lexical dossier that's the foundation for the current dictionary.

In February of 1965, the botanist Dennis E. Breedlove, who was once operating in Chiapas with
Brent Berlin on Tzeltal ethnobotany (see Berlin, Breedlove and Raven 1974, Breedlove 1981),
came to Huehuetenango to assemble crops within the Cuchumatanes, together with particularly the Chujspeaking
region, the place there has been broad cloud woodland. We gathered for 2 days close to San
Juan Ixcoy and the Captzin rocks, after which went directly to San Mateo Ixtatán for 4 extra days.
Francisco and Dennis gathered the specimens and Dennis recorded the botanical information,
including the locality, altitude, and so forth. and feedback at the vegetation. Francisco and that i recorded the Chuj
names of the crops and their ethnobotanical class (in phrases of the types 'anh, te',
ch'anh, and 'ixim). in keeping with my box notes we accrued 1328 specimens in that box session
(Br 8465-9793). those facts went into my lexical slip records, and the result of this and other
collecting journeys have been later released (Breedlove and Hopkins 1970-71). The botanical IDs from
that book are included during this dictionary.
In may possibly of 1965 Francisco and that i performed a two-week dialect survey of the realm in
which San Mateo Ixtatán Chuj was once spoken, within the municipios of San Mateo Ixtatán and Nentón,
collecting fabric from 17 aldeas and town middle, a complete of 27 questionnaires. a number of texts
were recorded in this box season, and as traditional, the transcribed fabric was once incorporated
into my lexical documents. on the finish of this dialect survey Francisco and that i amassed extra plant
specimens (H 0001-0038).

The selection of plant names encouraged me to assemble animal names besides, and to take
notes on their local category. Absent box paintings at the undertaking, we consulted reference
books, together with Ibarra's Mamíferos de Guatemala, Alvarez del Toro's Reptiles de Chiapas, and
Peterson's box publications to the birds. a number of the names were amassed during the Mayan
Vocabulary Survey elicitation or the Monosyllable Dictionary. within the strategy of recording this
information, i started to discover the Chuj procedure of gender markers that partitioned the animals
into coherent sessions, and Francisco went throughout the lexical documents and extra the gender markers
to the slips. the result of this research have been released within the ill-fated magazine of Mayan
Linguistics (Hopkins 1980a).

In Guatemala urban I had obtained the topographical maps for the sector of
Huehuetenango (Dirección common de Cartografía, 1963; see box Notes, 6-12 September,
1964) and Francisco and that i pored over the maps position through position as I recorded the Chuj names,
most of which have been garbled within the Spanish types (the locative yich, 'base of', for example, was
almost unavoidably transcribed Ix-). i eventually brought to the Instituto Nacional de Geografía
and to the Instituto Indigenista Nacional a corrected checklist, for what that was once worthy. My research of
the formation of Chuj position names was once later publshed (Hopkins 1972), and the entire position names
were additional to my lexical records. The Spanish position names said listed below are the reliable names, as
registered within the Diccionario geográfico de Guatemala (Dirección normal de Cartografía 1961-
62).
A graduate pupil in Geology from LSU was once dwelling in Huehuetenango in 1964-65, and
he pointed out many of the rocks and minerals we had names for. For the result of his research and
related paintings within the Cuchumatanes via him and his colleagues, see Blount 1967 and Anderson et
al. 1973.

In August of 1965, Dennis Breedlove and Brent Berlin got here to Guatemala to collect
plants and speak about additional tasks. With Francisco's support, they amassed close to Antigua and then
again within the Chuj sector, all jointly one other 292 specimens (Br 11397-11689). Brent and that i met
with Chris Day, one other Chicago graduate scholar (in the sphere engaged on Jacaltec whereas I was
working on Chuj, see Day 1973), a couple of comparative research of numeral classifiers within the three
languages, Tzeltal, Jacaltec and Chuj. Over the following few years we collaborated in a preliminary
project, yet by no means introduced it to fruition. The plan was once for Chris to collect and evaluate the
vocabularies, Brent to write down up the semantics (as in his 1964 and 1968 monographs), and for me
to learn the grammars. basically the grammatical research reached e-book (Hopkins 1970).
However, all of the details I had generated in regards to the Chuj numeral classifiers went into my
slip files.

I again to Chicago in September, 1965, to complete my graduate paintings and my doctoral
iv
dissertation (Hopkins 1967). I then took a task educating Anthropology on the college of Texas
in Austin, and endured to technique my Chuj fabrics. I married Kathryn Josserand in 1970 and
spent a yr in Milwaukee, the place she have been educating, after which lower back to Texas. In 1973 we
left Texas for Mexico urban, on the invitation of Angel Palerm to set up the Programa de
Lingüística on the new Centro de Investigaciones Superiores del INAH that he directed (now
CIESAS, the Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social). paintings on
Chuj used to be deserted in want of box education and learn on languages in the direction of Mexico City,
especially Otomanguean languages. many years later, simply because we had began to stick with the
developments in Maya epigraphy, we started to paintings on Mayan languages back, yet box work
was on Chol, no longer Chuj.

I didn't go back to paintings on Chuj until eventually 2005-6, while I got a countrywide Endowment for
the Humanities Documenting Endangered Languages Fellowship. This fellowship allowed me to
prepare my Chuj fabrics for digitization and archiving on the Archive of the Indigenous
Languages of Latin the US (AILLA, www.ailla.utexas.org). Now, in 2012, all my recorded
materials on Chuj are archived. in addition to my transcribed box Notes and box photographs, a
revised model of my dissertation, rewritten in smooth sensible orthography, will entire this
collection.

The assortment comprises all of the recorded and transcribed Chuj texts, a few forty samples of
Chuj speech from 8 Chuj settlements, a few of which not exist. greater than twenty of
the settlements pronounced right here as position names have been deserted or destroyed within the genocide of the
so-called civil conflict (Manz 1988:83-89). it's my goal so as to add to the AILLA archive collection
much of my written fabric in addition, together with vast notes made whereas discussing grammar
and lexicon with Francisco Santizo Andrés. All this fabric is to be freely on hand to anyone
interested, and an digital model of the current Dictionary may be additional to the collection.
In the summer time of 2011, I dug out of a closet a wood chest that contained 4 drawers
of lexical slip documents, untouched seeing that approximately 1970. Over the following few months I transcribed the
lexical entries into an digital textual content dossier, rewriting the orthography into the now respectable Chuj
script (Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala, 1988). i've got tried to ensure that those materials
include the entire information on plant and animal names, position names, numeral classifiers, etc., that I had
previously released.

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Cf. illustrations of Washington palm). Ex: yapak', his palm; yapak'il pop, palm for a petate. 'apol, n ('ix). Woman's name: Apolonia. 'ap', n (ch'anh). Hammock or hammock bridge. 'ap' ch'anh = ch'anh 'ap'. Ex: yap'ch'anhil ha', hammock bridge for crossing water; yap'ch'anh, his hammock. 'ap' ch'anh, n phrase (ch'anh). Hammock, or hammock bridge. = 'ap', ch'anh 'ap'. 'ap'ej, vtr. To serve as a hammock. 'ap'jal, n (ch'anh). A small net bag woven from maguey fiber ("pita") = 1/4 chim (a large bag).

Ex: yes pálsohal 'ix kot yip'anh winh, They made false witness against him. yes pálsoh, the person who gave false testimony against him. 'esalwum, n. A liar. 'esanih, vin. To lie. Cf. 'eh. 'esej, vtr. To tell a lie. 'esej'el -ti'ok, vtr-dir phrase. To lie that someone said something, to give false witness. Ex: yujchi', ha winh 'ix kesej'el sti'ok, tzach jawih. So, to that man we lied about it, so you would come. ) [From Text 12, The Sorceror] 'espinuh, n (lum). Place name: Finca Tunalito El Espino, Nentón.

To divide something into thirteen parts. 'oxlajunhe'ok, num. About thirteen. 'oxlajunhej, n. Thirteen days from now. 'oxlajunhejih, n. Thirteen days ago 'oxlem, n ('ixim). A tamal with meat. 'oy, n (te'). A tree trunk used for house supports (vertical poles that support the frame for the roof); the term refers to the function, not a species of tree. It must have a fork, cha'ok, to hold the horizontal beams. Ex: yoy, his post; yoyal pat, the house posts. 'oymitej, vtr. To go around the edges of a town, on all sides; circumambulate.

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